August 2, 2012
By Arya Harsono
The last thing you could imagine toilet water to be is drinkable. Los Angeles County toilets, however, are clean enough to be consumed by humans without any major health complications. This is because of the thorough water management processes handled at Los Angeles’ Hyperion Treatment Plant, located on the city’s coast. The plant does not only deal with cleaning out waste water, it also takes out solid pollutants and reuses them as fertilizer, while also protecting the marine environment surrounding the establishment. Founded in the late 1800’s, the Hyperion Treatment Plant has been an important part of Los Angeles’ history. The plant originally ran up until the 1950s when a population boom occurred in the city, forcing the operators to halt many of their treatment processes.
For 30 years, sludge had built up in Californian waters and, in 1980, the city of Los Angeles launched a $1.6 billion seven-year secondary treatment program to collect the polluting biosolids in order to prevent them from entering the Bay. Since then, the biodiversity inhabiting the area around Hyperion has increased significantly along with an additional 95% reduction in biosolid waste (LAsewers.org). The city’s government has since realized the importance of waste management and has allowed Hyperion to flourish in its ecological activities, hoping to restore the damage it has once done on the Californian coast.
All of Los Angeles’ sewers lead to the Hyperion Treatment Plant, where they undergo multiple filtration processes. Most treatment plants undergo at least four stages of water treatment, but Hyperion Treatment Plant only reaches the secondary treatment stage before it dumps its over 600 million gallons of water into the ocean. Nothing to worry about though: the cleansed water has been modified so that it does not negatively affect saline waters.
The Hyperion Treatment Plant’s water cleansing process is slow but effective. The millions of gallons of sewage from Californian residents enter the plant’s head-works system, which is uses large piston-driven machines to separate large solids from the water. This is known as the primary treatment stage. After the water has been screen through the first stage, it is then poured into a cylindrical pit where it undergoes the secondary treatment. This stage in the process is painstakingly unhurried, as it carefully removes any silt, sediment, or scum discharge that may have evaded the primary treatment. In this stage, bacteria that consume remaining microscopic organic material are introduced to the waters, to further purify it. This water is then purged into the ocean, where it will continue to be a part of the hydrological cycle once more.
But environmentalists find the process’ results insufficient. More could be done to ensure water conservation and ecological benefit. Why not reuse the water for irrigation or crops? What about hydropower? It appears that gallons of water are being wasted when they could be reused or recycled. Statistically, only about 10% is returned to residential water systems. This is because transporting water back up into the city would require a great deal of effort involving commercial trucks, which could ironically be a negative impact on the environment rather than a way to preserve it. Hydroelectricity mills are also a seemingly rational use for the gallons of water being dumped into the ocean. The electricity generated from these mills could potentially power the plant and provide it with self-sufficient electrical energy, until the water runs out that is. All of these potential conflicts with the ways that one could improve the resulting water from Hyperion demonstrates the complexity behind energy sustainability while maintaining human society. The Hyperion Treatment Plant and the Los Angeles County government are continuously working hard on finding appropriate solutions to the ecological problems they must now face.
“LA Sewers.” LA Sewers. N.p., n.d. Web. 31 July 2012. <http://www.lasewers.org/treatment_plants/hyperion/index.htm>.
About the author: Arya Harsono is an undergraduate student at USC Dana and David Dornsife College of Letters, Arts, and Sciences taking a B.S. in Environmental Studies. His passions can be found submerged deep in the abyss of the ocean, where no man (or woman) will ever take it from him.
By Nathan Chen
Water is an irreplaceable, unequivocally necessary component to all life on Earth. Movement, growth, and plain survival all depend on the presence and interaction of water. With a unique chemical structure and polarity, water is a component unto itself, and we would be hard pressed to find a replacement for it. That said, as humans in a modern, dying world we have come to realize that our prolonged existence depends upon the frugal use of our planets water. Centuries ago, global water quantity was not of much concern, as glaciers, rivers, and lakes provided it in billions of tons. Today however, as global levels of freshwater continuously dwindle at frightening speeds, we have come up with ways to treat our used water in attempts to reuse it.
At Hyperion Wastewater Facility in La Segundo California for example, wastewater from homes, offices, sewers and the like drain out to be treated and filtered. Everyday, millions of gallons from all over the Los Angeles area travel along hundreds of miles of piping to get to the treatment facility. Upon arrival, the water is subjected to numerous filtering processes to remove all contaminants and biosolids. This process begins at Headworks. From bowling balls to potato chip bags, Headworks removes all large solids that obviously do not belong in the water. That done, the water travels to the primary and secondary treatment facilities. Here, the water is further filtered to remove muck and reduce biological oxygen demand (BOD). Finally, the use of bacteria is employed to further purify the water of any remaining organic compounds. The end of this stage marks the end of the water’s stay at Hyperion. Following its treatment and filtration, the water will be dumped into the coast, a short distance down the street from the facility.
It is this final process, the dumping of millions of gallons of just- cleaned- water back into the salty, unusable water of the ocean that puzzles many learning about the facility. From an environmental standpoint, throwing all that freshly treated water back into the ocean seems counter productive and wasteful. While it is true that this water is not nearly purified enough to be reused as drinking or hygienic water, it easily could fit the needs of other biological/organic processes. Gardening, golf courses, and agriculture are just a few major uses for such “gray water”, and yet rather than being partitioned for such, the water is simply dumped back into the ocean, where it cannot be readily accessible for human use. As a consequence, Los Angeles draws more upon freshwater sources, putting more strain into our already dwindling sources.
On the other hand, one cannot simply accuse facilities such as Hyperion for seemingly negligent waste, as the process of fixing this issue would incur many other environmental problems as a result. Saying that the treated water can be used as gray water is to skip all the in betweens of getting that water to where it could be of use. Massive fleets of tankers, trucks, and other fossil fuel burning vehicles would have to cart the millions of gallons of water to wherever desired. Aside from the obvious carbon and sulfur emissions this would cause, issues such as increased traffic and the necessity for more roads would quickly cause the process to not be worth it. Piping the water to where it could be used is another option, however this would cause major environmental issues as well as new infrastructure would have to be laid down, further destroying animal habitats and ruining ecosystems. Not to mention that in all this remains the huge need for additional funding, which quite frankly just may not be accessible for the city of LA and its surrounding counties. These possibilities and issues are things that must be visited and discussed by many scientists and politicians before any action will take place.
All in all, Hyperion does the best it possibly can with the limited resources and support it gets. Perhaps the near future will see the development of water turbines that can at least use the velocity of the dumped water to generate electricity. Who knows, maybe one day Hyperion will be able to sustain itself with the water it purifies; something that Los Angeles and the rest of the country could do well learning from.
About the author: Nathan Chen is second year Environmental Studies undergraduate at the University of Southern California.
By Katherine Moreno
The U.S. is currently experiencing a natural gas boom from an increase in hydraulic well fracturing (“fracking”). Fracking is a controversial process that extracts oil or gas deposited in shale rock by shooting a mixture of water, sand and chemicals down a well (Galbraith). The controversy stems from concerns that fracking wells may contaminate groundwater and threaten the health of nearby residents. In response to critics, the fracking industry has taken to funding university research that arrives at conclusions that oppose their concerns.
Last month, it was revealed that the author of the University of Texas report “Fact-Based Regulation for Environmental Protection in Shale Gas Development” had received more than $400,000 from a Texas natural gas developer (Revkin). The report found no direct link between fracking and groundwater contamination.
The Texas study appears to be part of a trend that is emerging. Carly Nelson, president of the American Association of University Professors, says frackers are “’buying the prestige’ of universities that are sometimes not transparent about funding nor vigilant enough to prevent financial interests from shaping research findings.”
Mark Patridge, a professor of rural-urban policy at Ohio State University, attributes the issue to a lack of funding at universities. “It’s a growing problem across academia,” he says, “Universities are so short of money, professors are under a lot of pressure to raise research funding in any manner possible.”
This trend could have serious implications for public policy. Universities can serve as trusted sources of information in public policy debates. Their research can help guide policymakers, inform public opinion, and ultimately shape policy (Connor, Galbraith, and Nelson). Universities need to take action to prevent undisclosed conflicts of interest and the “buying of prestige” from becoming more prevalent before public policy is significantly affected.
Connor, Kevin, Rob Galbraith, and Ben Nelson. “How a University of Texas Fracking Study Led by a Gas Industry Insider Spun the Facts and Misled the Public.” Contaminated Inquiry. Public Accountability Initiative, Jul. 2012. Web. PDF file.
Galbraith, Kate. “Seeking Disclosure on Fracking.” Dot Earth. The New York Times. 30 May 2012. Web.
Revkin, Andrew C. “A Deeper Look at Undisclosed Conflicts of Interest in ‘Frackademia’.” Dot Earth. The New York Times. 1 Aug. 2012. Web.
About the author: Katherine Moreno is a senior working toward a bachelor’s degree in environmental studies at USC Dana and David Dornsife College of Letters, Arts and Sciences.
From toilet to tap: recycled water’s potential to provide clean water for Southern California remains yet to be tapped
By Connie Ge
Windhoek, Namibia. Singapore, Singapore. Brisbane, Australia. El Paso, Texas. San Jose and Orange County, California. Astronauts at the International Space Station. These are among a small handful of places in the world that currently recycle wastewater, from household toilets and sinks, into clean drinking water. The concept of recycled water, or “toilet to tap” is not novel; plants in Namibia have operated successfully since 1968. Also called reclaimed water or grey water, recycled water has been used in the US for agriculture and industry for decades.
Los Angeles too is revisiting recycling water, or “toilet to tap” amidst rising dependency on imported water. 1.3 billion gallons of treated wastewater are discharged into the Pacific Ocean daily. However, once freshwater has been released into the saline ocean water, retrieving it via desalination is extremely energy intensive and thus pales as an efficient method for meeting public demands in comparison to recycling freshwater.
While 97% of the world’s water lies in its oceans, less than 1% is accessible freshwater. Due to global warming, melting icecaps and glacier water are flowing into the oceans at accelerated rates. A basic understanding of the hydrological cycle underscores why conserving freshwater via recycling should be a growing priority for both coastal and inland cities and farm communities in years to come.
Due to rapid desertification of the San Joaquin Valley’s water the past century, on July 24, Gov. Jerry Brown and US Secretary of Interior Ken Salazar announced a $23 billion plan to replenish the depleted, over-pumped farms and cities with water from the Sacramento River. Farmers and environmentalists of northern California voted down a similar plan proposed by Brown three decades ago and are currently protesting the legislation. While water relocation may be necessary to restore depleted farmlands, as a large center of water consumption, Los Angeles has a chance to better sustain itself.
Is recycled water clean enough to drink? Yes. “The technology is remarkable and can treat water to an often higher quality than the water that originally entered the system,” says Brent Haddad, PhD, associate professor of environmental studies at the University of California, Santa Cruz. District managers of the Orange County’s Water District also stated that the recycled water actually exceeded drinking water standards. The Singapore NEWater facilities’ launched a public education campaign prior to the opening of the treatment plant in 2003 explaining in detail the processes used, diminishing public skepticism.
Los Angeles hopes to increase its proportion of recycled local water from 1% to 6% by 2019. The technologies for effective water recycling are within reach: the Hyperion Water Treatment Plant, the largest in southern California once did so, but for some reason stopped. The Orange County Water Treatment Plant was a model for Singapore’s NEWater as well as a new plant in Van Nuys, the Tillman plant. The treatment process includes first microfiltration to remove sediment and organic waste, then reverse osmosis through thin membranes at high pressure to remove microorganisms, pesticides and pharmaceuticals, and finally ultraviolet light and hydrogen peroxide to breakdown remaining compounds. The treated water then percolates through pebbles into an aquifer, where it is pumped up for use several years later.
Access to clean drinking water is a basic human right that all living on planet Earth deserve. While the global South, or so-called “developing” world may sometimes lack infrastructure to meet demands, the global North is also facing considerable freshwater shortages. Not to utilize existing technology would be a waste.
While nervousness at the prospect of recycled water may be anticipated, the conversation itself could have far-reaching effects on deeper attitudes towards resource management. The awareness of what goes around comes around will hopefully invoke unflinching awareness and honesty about where the water we use comes from, where it goes, and increased accountability in regards to water as a shared commodity.
“California county turns to sewer water to increase drinking supplies” New York Times. Randal C. Archibold. Tuesday November 27, 2007.
“From toilet to tap: Psychologists lend their expertise to overcoming the public’s aversion to reclaimed water” American Psychological Association. Sadie F. Dingfielder. September 2004.
“As ‘Yuck Factor’ subsides, treated wastewater flows from taps” Felicity Baringer. New York Times February 9, 2012.
“California governor unveils ambitious water plan” Jim Christie. Reuters.
“Getting it clean: recycling LA wastewater” http://lang.dailynews.com/socal/editorial/water/water.html.
“Recharging the water supply” and “The city’s supplies” spreads by the Los Angeles Times
About the author: Connie Ge is a junior at the University of Southern California working to complete a bachelor of sciences in Earth Sciences.
By Scott Lindemann
Water is an essential component of life on Earth, and comprises a portion of every living thing on it. Water is a solvent, surrounding organic molecules and allowing them to interact with each other in ways that allow metabolism, replication, and ultimately life. Water has a number of fundamental properties that make it crucial for life, including this solvent ability and its properties of cohesion and adhesion. Interestingly, more than 97% of the world’s water is found in the ocean as salt water, and of the remaining fresh water, nearly 70% is frozen in the polar icecaps or in glaciers. Given the vital importance of water to life on earth as well as its scarcity, it is surprising that some of available fresh water seems to be used irresponsibly.
Currently Los Angeles relies on water diverted from various lakes and rivers, with some water coming from as far away as the Sacramento and Colorado Rivers. In addition to these sources, groundwater is pumped from underground aquifers faster than natural processes are refilling them, meaning the possible loss of these sources of naturally filtered drinking water.
Drinking water can be condensed from seawater at desalination plants, but the evaporation of seawater is an energy intensive process. Water can also be purified from wastewater at treatment plants, but this too is energy intensive. However, even once this water is reclaimed it takes a lot of energy to pump it to consumers, making these two processes very expensive ways of obtaining fresh water.
Despite these sources of water, it seems to that Los Angeles is ignoring what is possibly the easiest source of fresh water: rainwater. When it rains in Los Angeles, water flows off the roofs of buildings and into storm drains, where it flows directly to the Hyperion Treatment Plant along with the wastewater. This is not only a waste of a resource, but actually creates a problem for the city’s water treatment plant as the increased flow of water must be processed alongside sewage water, sometimes doubling the total daily volume of water which must be treated.
One solution could be to simply retrofit buildings in Los Angeles with gutters to divert rainwater into local holding tanks. By doing this, the city would have a renewable source of water that could be used for irrigation or purified into drinking water more easily than wastewater could be, helping meet the demand for water and meaning that less water would have to be diverted from rivers, lakes, and aquifers. This water has also already been “pumped” against gravity and distributed as rain by solar energy, and so would not need to be pumped again. In addition, because this water would be stored instead of diverted into the sewers, it would ease the load on Hyperion on rainy days.
This small change will not solve all of Los Angeles’s problems, but it could be one step towards a better system.
About the author: Scott Lindemann is a fourth year student at the University of Southern Califonia. He enjoys reading, cooking, and lifting weights.